A.B.T., P.K. and J.A. designed the experiments; A.B.T. constructed the samples and measured chemical, mechanical and wetting properties; A.B.T., S.K. and C.H. designed and performed the anti-biofouling experiments; O.A. discussed and analysed the anti- biofouling data and model; all authors contributed to the interpretation, conception and presentation of the data and wrote the article; J.A. supervised the research.