Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. Many such techniques operate based on a chemical tag whose optical absorption or fluorescence spectrum changes in response to a specific analyte. Specificity is an advantage in this case, but limits the variety of substances for which such a sensor can be used.
On the other hand, the use of structural color – derived not from molecular absorption but from coherent scattering from wavelength-scale roughness – has no inherent specific chemical requirements (e.g. any material with periodic roughness displays iridescence). Thus, tunable structural color carries the potential for broad applicability in colorimetric sensing.
We developed a technique for patterning multiple chemical functionalities throughout the inner surfaces of a highly ordered 3D photonic crystal, generating complex wettability patterns. When immersed in a liquid, the pores are selectively infiltrated in a unique spatial pattern. This creates an optical fingerprint of that liquid through the color contrast between wetted and non-wetted regions.
Using this platform, we have illustrated multilevel encryption, with selective decoding by specific liquids. A remarkable selectivity of wetting is observed over a very broad range of fluid surface tensions. These properties, combined with the easily detectable optical response, allow us to also exploit this system as a colorimetric indicator for liquids based on wettability.
Materials inspired by nature, Physics World, June 11, 2014.
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Nanocrystal Liquid Identification, Cosmetics & Toiletries, October 5, 2011.
Surface tension decoded, Chemistry World, September 2011.
Channeled chips can spot substances, Scientific American, August 11, 2011.
Devices Reveal Hidden Messages, Chemical & Engineering News, August 15, 2011.
"Watermark Ink" device identifies unknown liquids instantly, Harvard press release, August 3, 2011.
Inverse opal technology could help identify chemical spills, The Engineer, August 4, 2011.
"Watermark Ink" device identifies unknown liquids instantly, Materials Today, August 10, 2011.
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